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Conscientious objection is one important aspect of nonviolence and antimilitarist action. I myself refused to perform military and substitute service in 1986, and got some trials which lasted until 1991.

This section contains some articles I wrote, and gives some information on the field of nonviolence and antimilitarism. I try to expand this section step by step

The Movement Action Plan

A tool for analysing the progress of your movement

Silke Kreusel and Andreas Speck

Activists often feel disempowered, although their movement is doing well and on the road to success. Understanding the way a movement works and recognising its success therefore can empower movement activists and groups. The Movement Action Plan (MAP), developed in the 1980s by Bill Moyer, is a good tool for this, as it describes the eight stages of successful movements and the four roles activists have to play.

Strategic Assumptions
MAP is based on seven strategic assumptions:


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by Dr. Radut